A vertical stirring device that lowers sea surface temperature, increases CO2 absorption into the ocean, and at the same time promotes plankton growth.
Due to rising sea surface temperatures, typhoons and heavy rain/snow damage are becoming more frequent.
Since 2019, NPO Escott has been working on activities to increase the area of upwelling by developing an artificial upwelling device that uses wave power.
Latest videos and materials about wave upwelling pumps
1. Video: Climate change countermeasure mechanism of wave upwelling device ⇒Click here
2. Video: Wave-type upwelling pump explanation video ⇒Click here
3. Source: Latest information: Effect verification experiment results using wave-type upwelling pump
What is upwelling area?
- Although upwelling areas are said to occupy only about 0.1% of the total ocean area, their biological production is by far the highest among all marine ecosystems, creating an extremely rich ecosystem. This is because the nutrient salts from the deep sea are brought to the ocean surface, which triggers the proliferation of phytoplankton, which are the ocean’s producers, and the number of organisms at higher trophic levels increases one after another. The upwelling area has become a good fishing ground, and it also benefits humans.
What is a wave upwelling pump ? (≒Seafloor water pumping device)
This is a device that uses wave energy to pump seawater (or freshwater in lakes and marshes) to the surface, or conversely send surface water to lower layers.
The only structure is a pipe with a check valve suspended from a buoy (floating body) floating on the water surface.
Waves as small as a few centimeters create an artificial upwelling effect.
We are looking for monitors for the following cases!
- Cases in which seabed cultivation is necessary as a measure against malnutrition in the sea .
- A case where we are looking for a solution for reforming and decomposing bottom sludge, which is the cause of red tide and blue tide.
- A case where a new type of fishing reef is being considered.
- Cases where you want to suppress sea surface temperature rise.
What are the structure details and principles?
It consists of a buoy (floating body) floating on the water surface and a pipe with a check valve suspended below it.
When the buoy rises, the valve closes and draws up the water inside the pipe.
When the buoy descends, the check valve opens to disperse the water inside to the surface.
When the buoy’s rising speed is large, the water inside the pipe has upward kinetic energy.
The amount of water pumped is proportional to the vertical displacement of the buoy and the wave period.
Using waves and wind as energy sources, no secondary pollution occurs.
- Whole image
- Scallop farming site
- Upper part of upwelling pump
- High strength check valve
- Compatible with small waves
Confirm upwelling by comparing water temperature with and without upwelling pump
- Without a pump, sea surface temperature would rise rapidly due to sunlight during the day.
- Blue line = sea surface temperature / red line = 2m below sea level
- If there is a pump, the sea surface temperature is almost the same as the lower layer due to cold water upwelling from the lower layer.
Latest information: here
What is the effect of a wave upwelling pump?
1) Seabed cultivation (sea fertilization) effect
Effect-1: Increase in phytoplankton and activation of marine resources
Effect-2: Increase in phytoplankton captures CO2
Effect-3: Decomposition of sludge (sea areas with anaerobic organic matter deposits) is promoted, which helps prevent red tides and blue tides.
Effect-4: Leads to the suppression of methane generation (a greenhouse gas 25 times more effective than CO2) due to anaerobic decomposition.
- Plankton increase and CO2 absorption
- Source: University of Hamburg
- Artificial upwelling and increase in fish populations, Takumi
- Source: Japan Society of Marine Engineering
- blue tide outbreak
- Source: PAKUTASO
2) Expected effects of cooling sea surface temperature
Effect-1: Water vapor supply restriction
Effect-2: Suppression of typhoons, heavy rain, and heavy snow
Effect-3: Measures against heatstroke in coastal cities (heat absorption by low-level cold seawater)
Effect-4: Activation of marine resources by removing hot water caps from the sea surface (measures against death due to lack of oxygen)
- Japan Meteorological Agency HP
- Japan Meteorological Agency HP
- Source: TV Asahi News
- Massive fish die-off in the Gulf of Mexico
3) Latest research on sea surface temperature
In Katsuura City, Chiba Prefecture, the temperature rarely exceeds 30℃ even in summer due to ocean currents.
We compared the annual water temperature of the 8m-long distance at Katsuura’s Underwater Observation Park with sea surface temperature data from the Japan Meteorological Agency.
*There was an issue where the collection time of the Japan Meteorological Agency data was unclear.
- The average water temperature difference throughout the year was approximately 1.7°C, with sea surface temperatures being higher.
- The daily occurrence ratio of sea surface temperature > sea water temperature was approximately 95%.
- Sea levels were on average over 3 degrees Celsius higher in June, July, and August throughout the year.
- The maximum daily water temperature difference was 8℃. 2022.08.18
- In September and October, the difference in water temperature became smaller due to stirring caused by typhoons.
- The visibility was low during periods of rising sea surface temperatures, and the influence of plankton was expected.
What is the development status of wave-type upwelling pumps?
The water may suddenly become cold even after diving to a depth of 2-3 meters.
This sudden change in water temperature often causes water accidents.
Measurements have shown that on a sunny summer day, the surface water temperature can be up to 3°C lower than the water temperature at a depth of 3m.
One of the causes is thought to be a sudden rise in sea surface temperature due to solar radiation.
It can be seen that almost half of the solar heat is absorbed by the surface layer of the ocean at depths of up to 0.5m .
A 1 mm thick water layer absorbs almost all of the thermal component wavelengths in sunlight that are 3 μm or larger.
It is thought that a large amount of water vapor is generated from several centimeters below the surface of the ocean.
Wave-type upwelling pump: What are the characteristics of the product name “Ocean Muddler”?
①Zero energy drive: Continues to work 24 hours a day, 365 days a year using only wind and waves.
② High strength and durability: The experience gained from long-term offshore tests has been condensed.
③Economy and versatility: Except for the check valve, it consists of drain pipes, etc., and can be obtained anywhere in Japan.
④DIY compatible: Those involved in the fishing industry can create and install it themselves.
⑤Effect of laying in large quantities: Under normal conditions, it can be expected to be effective as a fishing reef.
Implementation test at Ishinomaki City Scallop Farm: Total length approximately 6m, lower part is VU150 tube
Low layer nutrient pumping principle
① Waves raise the buoy on the water surface.
②At this time, the valve of the upwelling pump suspended on the buoy is closed, so the water in the pipe is pulled up along with it.
③ When the rising speed of the buoy decreases, the water in the pipe pushes open the valve due to the law of inertia and reaches the sea surface.
④ When the buoy begins to lower from the crest of the wave, the water inside the pipe reaches the sea surface due to water pressure from below.
⑤Pumps up nutrients from the ocean floor to the sea surface.
Estimated upwelling water volume and calculation formula
If the wave period is 5 seconds, it will repeat the up and down movement 17,280 times a day.
If the amplitude of the buoy is 50 cm and the diameter of the pipe is 20 cm, each wave will pump up approximately 15 liters of water.
This means that approximately 270 tons of water will be drawn up per day. (Does not include buoy sinking loss/flow resistance)
When a typhoon occurs in the southern seas, swells of about 3 meters in height are pushed onto the coast, and the amount of upwelling is thought to be several times that amount.
It is hoped that the typhoon’s own energy will be used to lower sea surface temperatures and suppress water vapor production.
- Artificial upwelling to increase fish resources using wave power
- Source: Griffith University Gold Coast, Australia
Suppression of water vapor supply to typhoons
If the sea surface temperature is lowered by 1°C, water vapor generation can be reduced by approximately 7%. (IPCC)
- Sea surface temperature on August 9, 2023
- Source: Japan Meteorological Agency website
- Clouds and waves come from the sea to the coast. 2023.8.5
- Kamogawa City, Chiba Prefecture
take advantage of the typhoon
①A typhoon occurs in the southern seas of Japan.
② Arrival of high waves/swells due to typhoon
③The wave-powered upwelling pump moves up and down significantly and begins to pull up low-level cold water.
④ Decrease in sea surface temperature in the installation area due to cold water diffusion/Diffusion of nutrients in the low layer
⑤ Suppressing typhoon development by suppressing water vapor supply
- Sea surface temperature drops as typhoon passes
- Seafloor nutrient redispersion
Revitalize marine resources around the installation site
Pumping up nutrients from the ocean floor, it causes the growth of phytoplankton.
- A chain extending to the ocean floor plows the ocean floor.
Aerobic decomposition of sludge = suppression of methane and blue tide generation
① Aerobic decomposition of organic matter in bottom mud little by little over 24 hours = water + CO2 generation
② Suppressing methane generation = reducing greenhouse effect to 1/25
③Increase in phytoplankton
④ Revitalization of coastal marine resources
Aerobic decomposition of organic matter that accumulates in depressions on the ocean floor after dredging
① Upwelling of low-lying sediments (sludge, etc.)
② Contact with oxygen at the sea surface
④ Suppressing the occurrence of blue tides & increasing phytoplankton
*Blue tides are generated by winds from land and damage fish and shellfish.
*It decomposes in small quantities 24 hours a day, 365 days a year, such as in submarine depressions.
- Video of pumping low-level sand
- Experimental water area video: Onjuku Town, Chiba Prefecture, Iwada Fishing Port
Experiment off the coast of Hawaii conducted by the University of Hawaii and the University of Oregon
: “Open ocean experiment of upwelling control using wave pump technology”
① Even small waves of a few centimeters can pump bottom water to the surface.
The demonstration tests that have been conducted overseas so far have been on large upwelling pumps.
Many of these devices required wave heights in the meter range due to check valve structures.
②By improving the valve body and float buoy
*Opens and closes with slight amplitude due to wide left and right non-uniform valves
*Using an elastic body to generate closing force (usually gravity type opening/closing)
*The diagonal cut at the tip reduces both fluid resistance and drainage resistance when rising.
*It has a lifting effect due to the buoy shape and unbalanced load.
③ DIY compatible by using general purpose products (low cost)
*Other than the check valve, use sewage pipes (VU pipes and fittings) that can be obtained anywhere.
*Old tires are used as the elastic body to assist opening and closing.
④Easy to introduce, move, repair, remove, and dispose of
*The upwelling pipe is a drain pipe made of PVC, so it can be obtained at low cost anywhere in the country.
*Reduction of separation work at the time of disposal by using a single material
⑤It has the effect of combining with Stommel’s principle of permanent trackside.
*The upwelling principle works even when the upwelling pipe is near the water surface where the water temperature is high and there are no waves.
Recruiting project participants
In Japan, the frequency of large typhoons is increasing, and in 2019 they caused more than 1 trillion yen in disasters in eastern Japan.
Currently, it is known that when the sea surface temperature rises to 26.5 degrees Celsius or higher, the power increases rapidly.
The characteristic of wave-type upwelling pumps is that the higher the wave (amplitude), the more water from the lower layer is pumped up, lowering the surface water temperature.
In the case of Tokyo, from the moment a typhoon is born in the southern seas, approximately 1,000 km away, the waves arrive in nearby waters as swells.
Then, the upwelling of low-level cold water begins, and the water vapor supply is automatically suppressed in advance.
Project details here
Materials for project participating companies, organizations, and individuals
Griffith University, Australia
“Artificial upwelling to enhance fish stocks through artificial upwelling using wave power”
School of Engineering, Griffith University Gold Coast Campus, PMB 50, Gold Coast Mail Centre,
University of Hawaii, University of Oregon
“Open ocean experiments using wave pump technology to control upwelling”
Department of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon
KARINBJO¨RKMAN and ERICGRABOWSKI
Ocean Earth, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, Hawaii Faculty of Science and Technology
RICARDO LETELIER Department
of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon
STEVE POULOS, BLAKE WATKINS, and DAVID KARL
Department of Marine and Earth Science and Technology, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, Hawaii
Miyagi Prefectural Fisheries Experiment Station:
“Research on improving the production of cultured oysters by generating upwelling using natural energy”
Akira Kumagai and Akio Oshino
“Ocean Fertilization Experiment by Pumping Deep Water”
THE SEA FERTILIZATION EXPERIMENT BY UPWELLING
DEEP OCEAN WATER -Kazuyuki Ouchi OUCHI
Shiozawa,Karuizawa-cho, Nagano Prefecture, 389-0001) Konomura C-11)Ph.D., Ouchi Ocean Consultant, Inc.
Funds for research activities are made possible through the financial support of the following members.
8 supporting members:
Support amount: 5,000 yen/month
Shift Service Co., Ltd.
Yoshida Transport Co., Ltd.
Suzuyo Jidosha Transport Co., Ltd.
Hisawa Warehouse Co., Ltd. Yamaraku
Transport Co., Ltd.
Aobara Transport Co.,
Ltd. Maruyama Transport Co., Ltd.
Regular member 41 companies:
Support amount: 1,000 yen/month
Ltd. Japan Management Association Research Institute
Japan Freightliner Co., Ltd.
Japan Freight Railway Co.,
Ltd. Sirius Consulting Co.
, Ltd. Hayakawa Maritime Transport Co., Ltd.
Gunma Jikahi Transport Co., Ltd.
Koriyama Truck Center Business Cooperative
Tokyo Boeki Transportation Co., Ltd.
Eishin Transportation Co., Ltd.
Yoshida Transportation Co., Ltd.
Yamaniya Logistics Service Co., Ltd.
Otake Transportation Co., Ltd.
Yashio Transportation Co., Ltd.
Hoyu Service Co., Ltd.
Ibaraki Prefecture Transportation Business Cooperative Association
Sano City Hall
U-Palette (Digire Company) EF
Ltd. Tradeshift Japan Co., Ltd.
Atom Logistics Co., Ltd. Noshiro
Transport Co., Ltd. Try
Wall Japan Co., Ltd.
Shirai Eco Center Co., Ltd.
Co., Ltd. TAXT
Co., Ltd. Lockit Global
Kowa Transport Co., Ltd.
Tatsumi Transport Co.,
Ltd. OLC Logistics (Japan) Co., Ltd.
Masashi Kamio (Logistics Advisor)
Japan Transcity Co., Ltd.
TRADE TECH JAPAN LLC.
Fujimoto Tsuyoshi (Doctor)
Japan Technology Co., Ltd.
Oparts Co., Ltd.
NPO Escott is looking for people to work with us!
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4-17 Higashijomachi, Kashiwa City,
Chiba Prefecture 277-0011 768-22 Kamifuse, Onjuku-cho, Isumi-gun, Chiba
Fax: 04-7166- 4128
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